Good Life Homebrew Articles http://www.goodlifehomebrew.com Wine Kits, Beer Kits for Home Brew Beer Making and Home Brew Wine Making en http://www.goodlifehomebrew.com/FILENAME_ARTICLES_RSS How does home brewing fit into your retro social agenda? Wed, 05 Dec 2012 01:06:08 +0000 sales@goodlifehomebrew.com (Sales Team) Beer http://www.goodlifehomebrew.com/article_info.php?articles_id=34 http://www.goodlifehomebrew.com/article_info.php?articles_id=34 How does home brewing fit into your retro social agenda?

 

The vintage style revolution has grown and grown in recent years – so much so that young professionals in towns and cities the length and breadth of the UK are completely ensconced in the movement, which takes in fashion, interior design and even crafts and hobbies.

 

The great thing about the crafts and hobbies associated with vintage style is the way they complement one another so perfectly, giving rise to a whole new social scene – one that mirrors the traditional social scene idealised by so many of us.

 

Home brewing is one of the more popular traditional hobbies that allows people to put their interests in science and food to good use. Baking is another and these two crafts go together especially well.

 

People who are into vintage crafts and hobbies have a number of labels, from hipster to foodie, and the movement really is all-encompassing. So if you do like the chance to brew your own beer or wine, it’s worth seeing how you can actually tie this in with other hobbies, crafts and interests that make the whole scene more enjoyable and that allow you to bring your friends and family into the act with new avocations they will enjoy themselves.

 

When you think about it, you can organise the majority of your social life around your crafty interests.

 

Booze

 

The booze is taken care of thanks to your home brew kit. You can be in charge of the alcohol but it’s a good idea to expand your repertoire in order to cater to the tastes of all your friends and family. Otherwise, get a mate involved to take care of the wine while you take care of the beer. Swapping recipes and concoctions is great fun.

 

Food

 

Get other members of the family or your friendship group to put their foodie skills to the test. When they come to sample the delights of your cellar, make sure they bring along the fruits of their labour in the form of dishes of all kinds, from lovingly baked cakes to breads, dips and main meals. Only one rule applies – everything has to be made from scratch!

 

Music

 

You could get people to make their own music to really get into the spirit of things, but vintage style doesn’t always rely on a DIY attitude. It also takes in people interests in collecting. If you host a little get together, why not get people to bring records they’ve collected? Listening to vinyl really helps you buy into the whole retro scene and it often throws up some real gems that inject serious atmosphere.

 

Clothes

 

Dressing in a retro style is something that often happens quite naturally for people who love collecting, love crafts and love baking or exploring cooking in its finer details. However, if someone has it in them to make their own clothes then they may be able to make you the odd item too. This is just something else to add to the brilliant array of skills that contribute to the whole scene you are trying to create.

 

It’s fun learning

 

The fact is that when you learn about things in detail and have a go at creating things for yourself, you inevitably find the whole thing more rewarding – even when you are drinking beer you haven’t made at the local, eating out at a restaurant, going to live music events, clothes shopping or anything else. Home brewing and other traditional crafts are a hands-on lesson in how to have fun!

 

 

 

By Paul Dowrick

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Blackberry Port Sun, 08 Jul 2012 03:07:04 +0100 sales@goodlifehomebrew.com (Sales Team) Port Recipes http://www.goodlifehomebrew.com/article_info.php?articles_id=32 http://www.goodlifehomebrew.com/article_info.php?articles_id=32

One of the homebrew highlights of Christmas 2011 was the limited edition Blackberry Port by Wine Expert.

Unfortunately they decided it really was a limited edition and not to be repeated.  This is a great shame as this wine kit was one of the best I have ever tasted.  So, to help you all out for this Christmas I have decided to publish this Blackberry Port recipe.

 

Ingredients:

 

Technique - To make 1 gallon:

 

1:  Crush the washed blackberries and put them into your primary fermenter.

2:  Add all of the other ingredients with the exception of the yeast, super enzyme, Brandy Essence, and grape concentrate.

3:  Make sure all of the sugar is dissolved.

4:  Cover and leave the blackberries to soak for about 12 hours.

5:  After 12 hours add the yeast and stir daily.

6:   After 5-6 days the gravity should have reached 1.030, strain off the pulp and transfer to a secondary glass fermenter (leaving the sediment behind).

7:   Rack after 4 weeks.

8:  Once fermentation has finshed stabilise the wine with sorbate and allow to clear.

9:  Once clear add the grape concentrate and brandy essence (you could omit the essence and add a little brandy to give more fortification.

10:  Bottle and allow to mature for as long as you like.

 

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Job Available Fri, 09 Mar 2012 09:08:03 +0000 sales@goodlifehomebrew.com (Sales Team) Shop Information http://www.goodlifehomebrew.com/article_info.php?articles_id=31 http://www.goodlifehomebrew.com/article_info.php?articles_id=31

Do you need a Saturday job?

 

Regulars to our shop will have seen how fast we have grown over the last 2 years, and nothing ever changes.   The back of the shop is being extended by 4 meters right now and now we need a full time Saturday worker.

 

This is what we need -

 

A reliable, enthusiastic, Saturday worker who is able to manage the shop on their own.

 

Hours 9:30 - 5:30 every Saturday. 

 

We require a worker who is able to perform the following tasks - 

 

Open shop

Operate cash till and computer system (training given)

Process credit cards 

Talk to customers and help them choose products

Give advice on all aspects of beer and wine making

Stock shelves

Perform end of day proceedures

Lock up shop at 5:30 

 

Do you know your Gervins from your Rauchmalz from your Beaverdale?

Could you answer this question - my wine has stopped fermenting early, what do I now? 

 

If the answer is yes, this may be the job for you.  But don't worry, we do not

expect you to know everything straight away. 

 A period of extended training will be given. 

 

 

If you would like to apply please email Paul using paul@dowrick.com

 

Many thanks. 

 

Paul 

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Storage Space Needed Wed, 04 Jan 2012 00:09:07 +0000 sales@goodlifehomebrew.com (Sales Team) Shop Information http://www.goodlifehomebrew.com/article_info.php?articles_id=30 http://www.goodlifehomebrew.com/article_info.php?articles_id=30 Do you have any storage space?

 

Regulars to our shop will have seen how fast we have grown over the last 2 years, and nothing ever changes.   The back of the shop is being extended by 4 meters but this is not enough, we need more storage space.  Do you have any spare space we can use?

 

This is what we need -

 

A barn / shed / out house that is...

Dry

Secure

Close to Norwich / Mulbarton

NO electricity needed

NO water needed

About 500 square feet

Reasonable flooring so that a palette truck can be used

Road access for delivery lorries

Ideally least 6 months notice to quit - so we can find somewhere else

 

We will be storing buckets , bottles, etc on palettes and will need regular access to stock up. 

The ability to buy in bulk should make us a lot cheaper on certain items and we will happily pass that discount on to you.

 

If you are able to help please call Paul on 01603 418 408

 

Many thanks. 

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Parsnip Wine recipes Mon, 03 Jan 2011 03:05:09 +0000 sales@goodlifehomebrew.com (Sales Team) Parsnip Wine recipes http://www.goodlifehomebrew.com/article_info.php?articles_id=29 http://www.goodlifehomebrew.com/article_info.php?articles_id=29 12Kg Parsnips

6 Clementines or Mandarins

1.2Kg white grape juice concentrate (I used a Beaverdale 6-bottle kit)

2Kg Raisins

2Kg Unrefined Demerara Cane Sugar

2Kg Granulated White Sugar

500g Wheat

Tannin

Yeast Nutrient

High Alcohol Yeast

Tartaric Acid

Citric Acid

Pectolytic Enzyme

Oak Chippings

 

Prepare a starter bottle using the high alcohol yeast, some sugar and nutrient. Put in a warm place.

Scrub and peel the parsnips, dice into small chunks. Grate the zest of the clementines, chop up the rest and mix in with the parsnips. Put the whole lot in a big pan with enough water to cover, bring to the boil and simmer until tender. Tip the whole lot into a bucket. When cool, add Pectolytic Enzyme. Stir well and leave in a warm place for 12 hours, then strain the liquor from the parsnips into a 5-gallon fermenting bucket. Dissolve the sugar and GJC in a few pints of hot water and add to the bucket, along with the raisins and wheat. Add tannin, tartaric acid, citric acid, oak chips and yeast nutrient. Top up the bucket to about 4.5 gallons. Check the temperature is no higher than 20C, then add the starter bottle. Check the SG. This should be around 1.105. Ferment on the pulp for 6 days, maintaining the temperature at 20C. During this time, stir regularly - at least twice a day - and mash up the raisins as they soften.

After 6 days, strain off the pulp, but do not discard it. Put the pulp into a plastic container and pour on 2-3 pints of boiling water. Work the pulp to extract all the remaining flavour. Strain again, and when cool, add the liquid to the fermenting container.

Ferment under airlock until the SG reaches 1.005, then add 500ml invert sugar (made at 2Kg sugar per litre of water). Keep ‘feeding' the yeast in this way each time the SG drops to 1.005 until the alcohol content finally kills the yeast.

When fermentation is complete, rack off the sediment, fine and clear. If possible, keep for at least 12 months before drinking.

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Orange Wine Recipe Mon, 03 Jan 2011 03:03:09 +0000 sales@goodlifehomebrew.com (Sales Team) Orange Wine Recipes http://www.goodlifehomebrew.com/article_info.php?articles_id=28 http://www.goodlifehomebrew.com/article_info.php?articles_id=28 To make 5 gallons:

 

12Kg oranges (I used Navel)

3Kg Demerara sugar

2Kg Granulated sugar

1Kg Sultanas

2 tsp wine tannin

Yeast nutrient

Wine yeast

 

Wash the oranges. Very thinly peel the skin off, making sure you don't include any of the pith. I used a floating head vegetable peeler for this. When you have peeled the oranges, take about half the peelings and spread them out in a baking tray. Put them in a low oven until they are crisp and light brown. Crush the oranges into a bucket, making sure you only allow the juice and orangey bits to go in, not the pith. Dissolve the sugar in a gallon or so of boiling water and pour over the orange pulp. Mince the sultanas and add to the bucket, together with the peel. Add cold water to 5 gallons and when cool, add the tannin, nutrient and yeast. The must should have a starting gravity of around 1100, which will give a wine of around 15%.

Ferment on the pulp for 5-7 days, stirring regularly, then strain off into a fermenter to complete. Rack and finish as usual.

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Red Chocolate Wine Recipe Mon, 03 Jan 2011 02:00:05 +0000 sales@goodlifehomebrew.com (Sales Team) Red Chocolate Wine Recipes http://www.goodlifehomebrew.com/article_info.php?articles_id=27 http://www.goodlifehomebrew.com/article_info.php?articles_id=27 Also, here is a way of making 'average' red grape juice into something a bit more sophisticated and special without going daft on the cost:

Pour a 5-gall red grape juice kit into a bucket

Add a gallon or so of hot water to help it dissolve.

 

Then add the following

1.5Kg frozen Summer Fruits (3 for a fiver from Tesco - a mixture of redcurrants, blackberries, blackcurrants, raspberries, etc),

a can of black cherries,

2-3lb washed bananas, chopped, with skins on,

1Kg demerera sugar,

1 tsp citric aid, 1 tsp tannin,

1 tsp tartaric acid,

1 pkt oak chips,

3 heaped dessertspoonfuls of cocoa powder!

 

Gives nice subtle chocolatey undertones!)

 

Make it up to 6 gallons with cold water, when cool add yeast & nutrient. Ferment on the pulp for a week, mushing every day, then strain into secondary and ferment out. Rack fine & filter as usual. I had an SG of 1.115.

Gives a nice, balanced, fruit forward wine with interesting flavours that tastes way beyond its cost.

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Rhubarb Wine Recipe 1 Fri, 05 Feb 2010 07:08:00 +0000 sales@goodlifehomebrew.com (Sales Team) Rhubarb Wine Recipes http://www.goodlifehomebrew.com/article_info.php?articles_id=26 http://www.goodlifehomebrew.com/article_info.php?articles_id=26 Ingredients:

 

5 lbs rhubarb

6 pints water

2.5 lb Sugar

0.5 oz Precipitated Chalk

0.25 teaspoon Tannin

1 teaspoon Nutrient

1 crushed Campden tablet

1 packet Wine Yeast

2 pack wine finings

 

The starting gravity should be between 1.095-1.100

All of these ingredients can be obtained from the Goodlife Homebrew Centre 

 

Method:

 

Place the chopped rhubarb and sugar into a suitable food grade bucket and mix them together. Cover the bucket with a suitable lid and leave for 24 hours for the juice to extract.

Crush the rhubarb and pour boiling water whilst stirring.

When cool, put the rhubarb into a straining bag and squeeze as much of the juice out as possible. The pulp can be thrown away.

Add the remaining ingredients (not the yeast or finings). Check the gravity and adjust (if necessary) the gravity of the must by adding more sugar (should be 1.110).

After 24 hours add the yeast and ferment at 21 degrees Celsius.

Once fermentation has finished rack and allow to clear before bottling - use the finings if necessary.

A further 2 campden tablets can be added to stabilise the wine. If you want it sweeter add sugar to taste and some wine stopper to prevent the wine exploding. Age 12 months before drinking

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Think outside of the box. Sat, 06 Mar 2010 03:08:07 +0000 sales@goodlifehomebrew.com (Sales Team) Wine http://www.goodlifehomebrew.com/article_info.php?articles_id=25 http://www.goodlifehomebrew.com/article_info.php?articles_id=25 There must be 100's of wine kits now available in most good homebrew shops, and you probably have a few favourites, but why not try to make them a bit better.

In this article we will look at various options for either improving a wine kit or turning it into something completely new.

 

Option1:  Chocolate wine.  Take any good full bodied red wine kit and ferment it as per the instructions.  Sweeten to taste by adding a little brewing sugar, and then flavour by slowely adding small aliquote of Still Spirits Chocolate essence.  I have personally made a Chocolate Merlot like this.  It is unbelievable.  As a variation, try adding a little natural vanilla essence.

 

Option 2:   Mother-in-Law Whine.  No it doesn't leave a nasty aftertaste, or put tears in your eyes.  Ferment out a good quality 1 gallon Chardonnay kit.  Then add 1 sliced dragon fruit per gallon - this will turn it pink, and either a few drops of rose water or a cup full of rose petals.  Sweeten to taste.  This wine is a fantastic summer wine served chilled.

 

Option 3:  More body.  You have several options here.  Add oak chips to increase tannin, or some dried elderberries to add extra everything.

 

Option 4: Port.  Ferment out any good quality red wine kit.  Sweeten by adding a small can of red grape juice per gallon, and increase the alcohol by the addition of some cheap brandy.  This really is superb Port and you made it yourself.  Again, add extra oak chips if you would like it a bit more oaky.

 

Option 5:  Champagne:  Put any wine (red or white) into a soda stream and carbonate.  Release the pressure really slowely as they can erupt.  Serve highly chilled. Alternatively ferment out your favourite kit, but do not add the stabiliser at the end.  Once it is naturally clear place it into swingtop bottles, add one teaspoon of sugar and seal.  The wine will ferment in the bottle and carbonate itself.  Allow the wine to clear very well before opening (chill the bottle and release the pressure slowely).

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Honey and Chilli Vodka Tue, 09 Dec 2008 04:04:08 +0000 sales@goodlifehomebrew.com (Sales Team) Spirit Recipes http://www.goodlifehomebrew.com/article_info.php?articles_id=24 http://www.goodlifehomebrew.com/article_info.php?articles_id=24 A fantastic recipe for a very interesting drink.

 

Ingredients:-

 

1 bottle Vodka

5 tsp Clear Runny Honey

2 x Birds eye chillis (whole)

 

Instructions:-

 

1: Place the honey and whole chillies in a suitable 75cl bottle. 

2: Top up with cheap vodka.

3: Leave to seep for 2 - 3 weeks.

4: Decant into a suitable 75 cl bottle.

5: Enjoy - best served ice cold straight from the freezer.

 

Optional:-

 

Use just one chilli if you do not like things of 'Madras' strength.

 

Thanks to Paul for this very enjoyable recipe.

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Flavours in Beer Wed, 03 Jun 2009 03:02:06 +0100 sales@goodlifehomebrew.com (Sales Team) Beer http://www.goodlifehomebrew.com/article_info.php?articles_id=11 http://www.goodlifehomebrew.com/article_info.php?articles_id=11 FLAVORS IN BEER


ACETALDEHYDE
CHARACTERISTICS:

Acetaldehyde has the flavor andaroma of green apples. It can also taste and smellacetic/cidery.
CHEMISTRY: Formed as a precursor to alcohol by theyeast, or as a product of the oxidation of alcohol to aceticacid.
CAUSES: Acetaldehyde from yeast metabolism as a stepin the production of alcohol from glucose has a crispgreen apple flavor. If produced from the oxidation ofalcohol to acetic acid, whether by oxidation or byacetobacter, this flavor will be more vinegary and lesspleasant.
PROCESS: As a product of yeast metabolism, it can becaused by the strain itself or by premature termination ofthe yeast's fermentation. The reaction from glucose toalcohol may be stopped at the acetaldehyde stage byfactors such as oxygen depletion, premature flocculation,etc. It may also be produced by contamination by aceticacid bacteria.
REMOVAL: Use a good yeast strain that will attenuatethe wort properly. Oxygenate the wort at yeast-pitchingtime. DO NOT splash or oxygenate the wort whenracking or bottling. Long lagering periods will also reduceacetaldehyde.

ALCOHOLIC
CHARACTERISTICS:
Both an aroma and a mouth-feel.A hot, spicy flavor detected by the nose as a vinousaroma and by the tongue by a warming sensation in themiddle of the tongue. A warming, prickling sensation inthe mouth and throat.
CHEMISTRY: The end product from the conversion ofglucose into carbon dioxide and ethyl alcohol. Other,higher alcohols can also be present, and these fusel oilsand contribute to vinous or solventlike aromas andflavors.
CAUSES: A normal reaction desired in beer, alcoholcontent is a function of the amount of fermentable sugarsin the wort, the fermentation temperature, and the yeaststrain. Fusel oil production will be a function of the yeaststrain used and the fermentation temperature (highertemperatures give more fusel oils). Low levels of thedissolved oxygen during the lag phase may also promotethe production of higher alcohols due to themetabolization of fatty acids in the trub by the yeast.
PROCESS: Composition of the wort, yeast strain andfermentation temperature determines fusel oilconcentration.
REDUCTION: The amount of alcohol and fusel alcoholsshould be appropriate for the beer style. Control alcoholby wort start gravity and wort content (avoid largeamounts of sugars). Wort should attenuate to about 1/4 of starting gravity. Control fusel oils by reducing thefermentation temperatures and pitching adequateamounts of yeast.

ASTRINGENCY
CHARACTERISTICS:
Unlike bitterness, astringency ispresent as a stimulation of the nerve endings throughoutthe mouth. It is not an aroma. The taste has a puckering,dry, sensation reminiscent of grape skins.
CAUSES: Bacterial or wild yeast contamination, addedastringency from grains or hops.
PROCESS: Caused by: poor sanitation; excessivehopping; excessive wort attenuation (low dextrin content),which gives a greater perception of astringency; boilinggrains; excessive grain crushing; high spargetemperatures; over-sparging; letting beer sit too long ontrub; alkaline mash or sparge water; too much sulfate,magnesium or iron; excessively high acidity.
REDUCTION: Process changes to eliminate the above.Crack grain properly, watch mash/runoff pH, heat spargewater to a maximum of 170 degrees; practice goodsanitation

COLOR
CHARACTERISTICS:
As appropriate for style.
LIGHTER: Use of pale malts, use of sugar or adjuncts,filtration.
DARKER: Use of higher-temperature kilned malts, use ofcrystal malt, use of dark malts, carmelization of the boil,hot side aeration and oxidation.

BITTERNESS
CHARACTERISTICS:
Generally a desired characteristicof hop use. Bitterness will be tasted on the back of thetongue and the roof of the mouth. One of the four basic flavors.
CAUSES: Hop content and alpha strength; length of hopboil; presence of dark malts, alkaline water.
PROCESS: How long hops are boiled, type of hop,fermentation temperature (high temperature and quickfermentation decrease bitterness), filtration reducesbitterness.
REDUCTION: Lower alpha hops, hops added at stagesthrough boil, filtration, high temperature ferment.

BODY
CHARACTERISTICS:
Mouth feel (will feel full). Asensation of viscosity in the mouth.
CHEMISTRY: Caused by the presence ofpolysaccharides (dextrins) in the beer that are notfermentable by the yeast. Medium length proteins alsocontribute to palate roundness.
CAUSES: Caused by presence of unfermentable sugarsor dextrins, often accentuated by diacetyl.
INCREASE: Desired in many beer styles. Hightemperaturesaccharification rest in mash; use of crystalmalt and cara-pils malts; use of malto-dextrin, use oflactose, adequate protein rest, flaked wheat, oats orbarley in the mash.
REDUCTION: Generally not desired. Use of lowtemperaturesaccharification rest in mash, highlyfermentablewort, use of large amounts of corn sugar inwort, long storage, bacterial breakdown, not boiling wortthat may have diastase enzymes present.

CLARITY
CHARACTERISTICS:
Visual clarity in beer contributes toits appeal.
INCREASE: Use of well-flocculating yeast strains;clearing agents such as polyclar, papain, Irish moss,bentonite, gelatin, etc.; filtration; long, vigorous boil andquick chilling; lagering and aging.
DECREASE: Weak or mutated yeast strains, nonflocculantyeasts, wheat malt, unmalted barley, poor coldbreak, poor starch conversion in mash, poor malt crush,bacterial contamination, wild yeast contamination, highprotein content due to ineffective proteolytic rest(especially with undermodified malts), tannin present inbeer due to excessive or high temperature sparge.

CARBONATION
CHARACTERISTICS:
The presence of carbonic acid inbeer gives the head and bubbles when the bottle isopened and pressure released. Gives headcharacteristic. Taste is tart and acidic, increasing with thecarbonation. This is especially noticeable onovercarbonated brews. An overall prickly or stimulatingmouth feel. Small bubbles are desired, as these willretain both the head and the carbonation for a longer period.
CAUSES: CO2 is dissolved in beer during thefermentation process.
TOO MUCH: Excessive priming sugars, bacterialcontamination, presence of amylase enzymes in bottledbeer, iron or calcium oxalate in the water, isomerized hopextract, autolyzed yeast sediment, unconverted starch,not boiling extract worts, fusarium mold on barley or inextract, precipitation of excess salts in the bottle.
TOO LITTLE: Poor bottle cap seal, not enough primingsugar, weak or dead yeast culture when bottling (as withlong lagering periods or high alcohol beers).

GRASSY
CHARACTERISTICS:
The aroma and flavor of fresh-cutgrass or new-mown hay.
CHEMISTRY: The aldehyde called hexenal, which isdetectable in concentrations of 0.2 ppm.
INCREASE DUE TO PROCESS: Poor quality malt, poorstorage of malt, cracking grains well in advance ofbrewing. Some English hops also contribute grassyaromas if used in large quantities.
DECREASE DUE TO PROCESS: Good, fresh maltstored under airtight conditions; cracking grains shortlybefore brewing.

DIACETYL
CHARACTERISTICS:
A butterscotch aroma and flavor,often a slickness on the palate. Not desired in excessivequantities, especially in lagers.
CAUSES: A by- product of yeast during fermentation, it isnormally re-absorbed during the secondary fermentation.Mutation of yeast can produce respiratory deficient cellswhich have lost their ability to reduce the diacetyl to moreinnocuous compounds. Another cause is the grampositivebacterium, Pediococcus Damnosus and otherlactic acid bacteria in cooled beer, young beer, and agingbeer. Note that the aroma/taste produced by all of thesecauses is indistinguishable.
CHEMISTRY: One of a family of vicinal diketones.Presence recognized down to 0.05 ppm, but identified at0.15 ppm. Some tasters are unable to perceive diacetyleven in large concentrations.
HIGH RATES FROM PROCESS: Underpitching ofyeast; long periods of wort cooling (overnight);contamination from equipment; poor yeast strain; too soon removal (fining) of yeast (before it can reabsorb thediacetyl); high adjunct ratio in wort; low fermentationtemperature; premature lagering; any process thatstimulates yeast then immediately removes it fromsuspension; use of contaminated sediment for re-pitching(bacteria often coexist with yeast in the sediment).
REDUCTION: Sanitation, quick wort chilling combinedwith adequate yeast starter amount (8 ounces of slurryper 5 gallons), adequate time for primary ferment beforelagering or fining/filtering, all-malt recipe, highertemperature primary fermentation, pure yeast culture,washing yeast sediment prior to repitching.

DMS AND RELATED COMPOUNDS
CHARACTERISTICS:
Volatile sulfur-based compoundsthat can give beer a taste and aroma of cooked corn,celery, cabbage or parsnip and even oystery-shellfish-likein high concentrations. These include dimethyl sulfide(DMS), diethyl sulfide, and di-isopropyl sulfide. DMS isfirst perceived in aroma at around 30 ppb, and the othercompounds at considerably lower concentrations. Thesecompounds are undesirable in beer in high amounts.
CAUSES: Wort bacteria (Obesumbacterium or Hafnia) isa major cause, especially of DMS. Coliform bacteria strains can also give a strong cooked-vegetable note. Additionally, these compounds can be formed during thekilning of green malt and during mashing. DMS is alsoformed by the yeast in a normal fermentation, and duringslow cooling of the wort by a non-microbiological chemicalreaction.
HIGH LEVELS DUE TO PROCESS: Poor sanitation(primary cause); not boiling the wort for at least one hour;covering the brewpot during the boil, long cooling times(overnight) before pitching; underpitching; contaminatedyeast (especially packet yeast and recovered sediment);high moisture malt; over-sparging with water below 160degrees.
REDUCTION: Good sanitation; fresh yeast culture; open,rolling boil; quick wort cooling; high pitching rates; use of2-row English malt; proper sparging.

FRUITY-ESTERY
CHARACTERISTICS:
Aromatic compounds that areidentified as fruity and estery in higher amounts. Theflavor and aroma of fruits such as strawberry, grapefruit,banana, raspberry, apple, pear and others can appear inbeer due to these esters. Depending on the style, thiscan be a desired flavor or one completely inappropriate.Ales and high gravity beers are high in fruity-esterycontent, while pilsners and American lagers are low.
CHEMISTRY: A by-product of fermentation produced bythe yeast. Fruity-estery characteristics increase withfermentation temperature.
INCREASE DUE TO PROCESS: Yeast strain used,higher fermentation temperatures, fermenting some lageryeasts at temperatures above 50 degrees, high-gravitywort.
DECREASE DUE TO PROCESS: Yeast strain used,fermenting ales around 60 degrees or less, lagers around50 degrees or less, lower gravity wort.

HEAD RETENTION
CHARACTERISTICS:
Good head on the beer whenpoured, not excessively large or small, Belgian lace onglass, head remains for a several minutes. Very muchdesired.
CAUSES: Small bubbles, dextrins, medium molecularweight proteins, isohumulones from hops, nitrogen inwort.
GOOD HEAD FROM PROCESS: Use of cara-pils; useof crystal malt; use of malto-dextrin; all-malt beer; goodone hour rolling boil to extract the isohumulones from thehops; use of wheat malt; adequate protein rest in themash to allow the proteolytic enzymes to break down thelarge proteins into albumin and smaller fractions andincrease the nitrogen content; high-temperaturesaccharification rest; racking to secondary to get beer offsediment; lower temperature fermentation; bottleconditioning.
POOR HEAD FROM PROCESS: Use of fully modifiedmalts; use of underkilned malts; not using a one-hour boil;inadequate protein rest, low-temperature saccharificationrest; oversparging; yeast autolysis from long sedimentcontact; excessive fusel oils; higher temperaturefermentation; excessive fatty acids; overboiling of wort;insufficient or deteriorated hops; some types of finings.
POOR HEAD WHEN SERVING: Soap, detergent or oilson glasses; lip balm, Chapstick or lipstick on lips.

HUSKY-GRAINY
CHARACTERISTICS:
A taste spectrum that includesastringency cereal or grainy flavors, and huskiness.Generally the grainy notes may or may not be desirable,depending on the style, but the husky astringent tastesare undesired. Husky-grainy is generally perceived as aflavor, although grain notes can be present in the aroma.
CAUSES: Tannins from grain husks causes theastringent huskiness, while the graininess comes from thestarches in the barley malt.
INCREASE DUE TO PROCESS: Excessive graincrushing; powdering the malt during crushing; spargetemperature in excess of 170 degrees; excessivesparging; high pH during sparging (above 6.0); boilinggrains; improper decoction mashing; improper wetting ofgrist during mash-in; direct-firing of mash tun withoutproper stirring; old beer; high mineral content in water(sodium, magnesium, sulfate, chloride).
DECREASE DUE TO PROCESS: Proper crush; slowmash-in; lautering temperatures between 164-170°;monitoring pH of runoff and adding gypsum to keep pHbelow 6; proper sparge amounts; temperature controlledor infusion mash; steeping adjunct grains (such as crystalmalt added to extract brews) below 170 degrees insteadof bringing to boil; water appropriate to style.

LIGHT-STRUCK
CHARACTERISTICS:
Skunk odor; unmistakable andgenerally not desirable in beer.
CHEMISTRY: Light will degrade hop iso-alpha acids which then combine with sulphur compounds in the beerto produce 3-methyl-2-butene-1-thiol, or prenylmercaptan. Other sulphur compounds also contribute tothe overall lightstruck character.
HIGH CONTENT: Light-struck fermenter; clear or greenglass bottles; sunlight on brown bottles; fluorescent lightson green or clear bottles.
REDUCTION OR ELIMINATION: Fermenter shieldedfrom light; use of bottles opaque to 400-520 nm(ultraviolet to blue-green) light; chemically modified hopextract (used by Miller); storing beer in a cool, dark place.

PHENOLIC
CHARACTERISTICS:
A hospital-medicine chest flavorand aroma, usually detected by its aroma components.Some phenolic tastes are desired depending on the style.Other descriptions include Band-Aid-like, plastic-like,smoky and clovelike.
HIGH LEVELS DUE TO PROCESS: Yeast strain;chlorophenols in the water; improper rinse of chlorinesanitizers; oversparging; sparging above pH 6.0; spargingabove 170 degrees; wild yeast contamination.
LOW LEVELS DUE TO PROCESS: Charcoal filtering oftap water; healthy yeast strain; proper sparging whilemonitoring temperature and pH, good rinse of sanitizersor use of non-chlorine sanitizers.

METALLIC CHARACTERISTICS: A harsh, metallic taste noted bothon the tip of the tongue and the roof of the mouth. Canbe felt throughout the tongue and mouth in largeconcentrations. Not desired in beer. Also described astinny or bloodlike.
CHEMISTRY: The ferrous ion (iron) and some organiccompounds formed by hydrolysis of cereal lipids in grain,and oxidization of free fatty acids.
HIGH RATE FROM PROCESS: Iron or mild steel incontact with beer; freshly-scrubbed stainless steel thathas not been allowed to oxidize (passivation); improperfiltering material; high iron content in water; poorlyprocessed grain.
REDUCTION: Use of stainless steel; low-iron water; useof citric acid to re-oxidize stainless that has beenabrasively cleaned; use of filtering materials that are acidwashedto remove iron; use of fresh, high-quality grainmalt.

MOLDY
CHARACTERISTICS:
A cellarlike, damp-earth, rankcabbagy or moldy bread odor. Not a common defect inbeer.
CAUSES: Fungal contamination.
CAUSES DUE TO PROCESS: Secondary fermentationor transferring beer in a moldy environment, like a cellar.Secondary fermentation or lagering in a moldy cellarwhere the temperature fluctuates and permits air to bedrawn into the carboy. Poor sanitation.
REMEDIES: Only expose beer to the air for transferringin a reasonably clean environment. Moldiness smelled inthe air is a good indication of an unacceptableenvironment. Constant-temperature secondary orlagering environment (to prevent air entering carboy).Good sanitation practice.

NUTTY CHARACTERISTICS: An aroma of Brazil nuts,hazelnuts, almonds, or slightly sherry-like. Not necessarily a defect, unless excessive or inappropriate for the style.
CAUSES: A product of oxidization or prolongedoverheating during aging or after bottling.
CURES: Store beer in a 55 degree or less cellar; preventoxidization or splashing when bottling or racking.

OXIDATION
CHARACTERISTICS:
Cardboard, paper, wet paper,sherry-like and rotten fruit are all characteristics ofoxidation, perceived both as an aroma and a flavor.
CAUSES: Oxidation of beer and the alcohol componentsinto trans-2-nonenal and other aldehydes.
HIGH LEVEL: Aeration of beer when transferring orbottling; excessive head space in bottle; poorlyfunctioning air lock; excessive age; high storagetemperatures; widely-varying secondary or lageringtemperatures; adding tap water to finished beer withoutboiling.
LOW LEVEL: Quiet transfer of beer when siphoning andbottling; flushing out bottles and kegs with CO2 beforefilling and capping; cool (<55 degree) storage of bottledbeer; proper head space in bottle; use of ascorbic acid oroxygen-barrier caps; functional airlock; constant temperaturesecondary/lagering; adding only boiled/chilled water to beer after primary fermentation.

SALTY
CHARACTERISTICS:
Saltiness is one of the four basictaste sensations and is found on the tongue, to either sidejust behind the tip. Excessive saltiness is not desired inbeer for the most part, but fair quantities will be acharacteristic of Dortmunder lagers and Burton ales.
CHEMISTRY: From sodium chloride, magnesium sulfateand other mineral salts.
HIGH LEVEL FROM PROCESS: Excessive addition of Burton salts or table salt or Epsom salts, especiallyadding these to water already high in mineral salts; waterhigh in sodium chloride or magnesium sulfate.
LOW LEVEL: Use salt-free water; do not use or usesmaller amounts of added salts, especially Burton watersalts.

SOLVENT LIKE
CHARACTERISTICS:
An acetone-like, lacquer-thinnerlike,pungent, acrid aroma which is followed up by aharsh, burning sensation on the tongue and possibly theback of the throat. Not desired in any beer style.
CHEMISTRY: Ethyl acetate in larger quantities (>33ppm) is the primary cause, either by wild yeast or theyeast strain used. Other compounds may also bepresent.
HIGH LEVELS DUE TO PROCESS: Wild yeastcontamination due to poor sanitation; high fermentationtemperature; non-food grade plastic equipment in contactwith the beer; open fermenter, especially after high kraeusen subsides; excessive oxygenation of the wort before pitching; oxygen in secondary fermenter.
LOW LEVELS DUE TO PROCESS: Good sanitation ofequipment; only food-grade plastic used; cooler fermentation temperatures; proper wort oxygenation; closed fermenter.

SOUR-ACIDIC
CHARACTERISTICS:
Another of the basic tastesensations, sourness is perceived on the sides of thetongue towards the back of the mouth. At higher levels itcan be felt in the throat. Generally in beer this isperceived as a sour aroma and a tartness or vinegarlikearoma. Sourness from bacterial contamination can alsobe perceived as spoilage or putrefaction.
CHEMISTRY: Caused by lactobacillus, pediococcus,acetobacter and some yeast strains.
HIGH CONTENT DUE TO PROCESS: Poor sanitation;poor yeast strain; excessive amounts of citric or ascorbicacid; high fermentation temperatures; excessive acid rest;mashing too long; storage at warm temperatures;scratched plastic fermenter.
LOW CONTENT DUE TO PROCESS: Good sanitation;cool fermentation temperatures; cool beer storage; mashing for less than two hours; glass carboy or stainless steel fermenters.

SULFURY-YEASTY
CHARACTERISTICS:
Strong sulfuric aroma and tastereminiscent of rotten eggs (hydrogen sulfide), sulfurdioxide, or yeast. Other descriptions include garlic, burntrubber, shrimp-like, meaty.
CHEMISTRY: Formed by amino acids methionine andcysteine in the malt and by certain yeast strains andbacteria, notably Zymononas, Pectinatus, andMegasphaera. Also formed by yeast autolysis.
HIGH LEVEL IN PROCESS: Yeast strain; rapidtemperature changes to fermenting wort; bacterial contamination; beer left on sediment; wild yeasts; high fermenter back pressure; poor oxygenation of wort atyeast-pitching time; use of metabisulfite in beer; old beer (yeast autolysis).
LOW LEVEL IN PROCESS: Good yeast strain; goodsanitation practice; racking off sediment before lagering; cooling lagers no more than 5 degrees per day; coldpitchinglagers; strong, healthy active primary fermentation (scrubs out the gaseous sulfur compounds).

SWEET
CHARACTERISTICS:
The last of the four basic tastesensations, perceived on the tip of the tongue.Desirability dependent on the beer style.

HIGH LEVELS FROM PROCESS: Quick flocculating orlow attenuating yeast strain; lack of yeast nutrients inwort; poor ferment due to lack of oxygen, yeast nutrient orother flaws; higher gravity wort with low-alcohol tolerantyeast; addition of crystal malt or licorice; high-temperaturemash; addition of dextrin malt or malto-dextrin combinedwith a quick fermentation; addition of sugar andpasteurization; addition of lactose; premature lagering.
LOW LEVELS FROM PROCESS: Yeast strain that gives good attenuation; good primary fermentation; lagering, but only after primary fermentation is over; alcohol-tolerant yeast strain; rousing the yeast (without excessively oxygenating it) after sedimentation.

]]>
The Brupaks Guide to Finings Thu, 01 Jan 2009 00:00:00 +0000 sales@goodlifehomebrew.com (Sales Team) Beer http://www.goodlifehomebrew.com/article_info.php?articles_id=10 http://www.goodlifehomebrew.com/article_info.php?articles_id=10 CLEARING AGENTS (finings)

In an ideal world there would be no need for clearing agents, all beers would drop clear of their own accord. Unfortunately there are substances that have an influence on beer clarity. These substances generally need some assistance in vacating the brew.

There are three main haze-forming substances in beer; starch, protein and yeast. Providing the mash has been allowed to progress past 'starch end point' the former should not pose a problem. Starch haze should certainly not be present in an extract beer.

Protein haze is usually the result of inefficient boiling or excessive chilling of the beer. During the boil, proteins coagulate to form flocks which precipitate out on cooling, Brupaks Irish Moss and Protafloc assist this process. Proteins are positively or negatively charged depending on their structure. At the normal wort pH of 5.5 - 6.0 proteins are generally positively charged. Irish Moss and Protafloc are negatively charged which enables them to attract the haze forming proteins which will subsequently precipitate.

Yeast will form a haze if it is present in the finished beer at too high a concentration. Although given sufficient time the excess yeast should sediment naturally, in practice it is usual to employ a fining agent. The two main fining agents are isinglass and gelatine. Isinglass is produced from the swim bladder of the sturgeon and gelatine from pork. Isinglass is some three times more effective at clearing yeast than gelatine. Although ready-for-use isinglass is often seen for sale, it is only really effective for one month from date of manufacture (although some products have best before dates very much longer). Brupaks Dried Isinglass is available from all good home brew retailers. This product will last a considerable time in its dried state and for about 4 weeks when mixed. Dried isinglass is mixed with water, preferably in a blender or food processor, although a hand whisk will suffice. Finings should be prepared at least 24 hours before it is required. Also available is a new product, Brupaks Isinglass Paste. This paste must be mixed with citric acid and water before use.

FINING AND CLARIFYING PRODUCTS
(click on links below for more information)

Brupaks supplies the following top quality finings and clarifiers.

Coarse Ground Irish Moss. The highest quality copper finings available. Recommended dosage 1 teaspoon per 25 litres (10g per hectolitre) of wort

Protafloc Copper Finings. An alternative to Irish Moss. Experimentation will determine which product works best for you.

Brupaks Dried Isinglass . Highly effective in the removal of excess yeast. Requires an electric blender for mixing. Recommended dosage 1 teaspoon in 500ml cold water (sufficient to clear 50 litres of beer).

Brupaks Isinglass Paste. Although not so easily stored as dried isinglass, this paste will keep for many months at room temperature. Dissolves more readily than dried isinglass but a blender is still recommended.

Brupaks Auxiliary Finings. The use of Brupaks Auxiliary Finings gives an overall improved beer fining performance. Advantages may include: a reduction in the amount of isinglass finings required; accelerated fining action; Improved polish on the final beer; reduced susceptibility to non-biological chill hazes. ]]>
The Brupaks Guide to Finings Thu, 01 Jan 2009 00:00:00 +0000 sales@goodlifehomebrew.com (Sales Team) Wine http://www.goodlifehomebrew.com/article_info.php?articles_id=10 http://www.goodlifehomebrew.com/article_info.php?articles_id=10 CLEARING AGENTS (finings)

In an ideal world there would be no need for clearing agents, all beers would drop clear of their own accord. Unfortunately there are substances that have an influence on beer clarity. These substances generally need some assistance in vacating the brew.

There are three main haze-forming substances in beer; starch, protein and yeast. Providing the mash has been allowed to progress past 'starch end point' the former should not pose a problem. Starch haze should certainly not be present in an extract beer.

Protein haze is usually the result of inefficient boiling or excessive chilling of the beer. During the boil, proteins coagulate to form flocks which precipitate out on cooling, Brupaks Irish Moss and Protafloc assist this process. Proteins are positively or negatively charged depending on their structure. At the normal wort pH of 5.5 - 6.0 proteins are generally positively charged. Irish Moss and Protafloc are negatively charged which enables them to attract the haze forming proteins which will subsequently precipitate.

Yeast will form a haze if it is present in the finished beer at too high a concentration. Although given sufficient time the excess yeast should sediment naturally, in practice it is usual to employ a fining agent. The two main fining agents are isinglass and gelatine. Isinglass is produced from the swim bladder of the sturgeon and gelatine from pork. Isinglass is some three times more effective at clearing yeast than gelatine. Although ready-for-use isinglass is often seen for sale, it is only really effective for one month from date of manufacture (although some products have best before dates very much longer). Brupaks Dried Isinglass is available from all good home brew retailers. This product will last a considerable time in its dried state and for about 4 weeks when mixed. Dried isinglass is mixed with water, preferably in a blender or food processor, although a hand whisk will suffice. Finings should be prepared at least 24 hours before it is required. Also available is a new product, Brupaks Isinglass Paste. This paste must be mixed with citric acid and water before use.

FINING AND CLARIFYING PRODUCTS
(click on links below for more information)

Brupaks supplies the following top quality finings and clarifiers.

Coarse Ground Irish Moss. The highest quality copper finings available. Recommended dosage 1 teaspoon per 25 litres (10g per hectolitre) of wort

Protafloc Copper Finings. An alternative to Irish Moss. Experimentation will determine which product works best for you.

Brupaks Dried Isinglass . Highly effective in the removal of excess yeast. Requires an electric blender for mixing. Recommended dosage 1 teaspoon in 500ml cold water (sufficient to clear 50 litres of beer).

Brupaks Isinglass Paste. Although not so easily stored as dried isinglass, this paste will keep for many months at room temperature. Dissolves more readily than dried isinglass but a blender is still recommended.

Brupaks Auxiliary Finings. The use of Brupaks Auxiliary Finings gives an overall improved beer fining performance. Advantages may include: a reduction in the amount of isinglass finings required; accelerated fining action; Improved polish on the final beer; reduced susceptibility to non-biological chill hazes. ]]>
The Brupaks Guide to Grains Thu, 01 Jan 2009 00:00:00 +0000 sales@goodlifehomebrew.com (Sales Team) Beer http://www.goodlifehomebrew.com/article_info.php?articles_id=8 http://www.goodlifehomebrew.com/article_info.php?articles_id=8 THE BRUPAKS GUIDE TO GRAINS

INTRODUCTION

It is malt that gives beer its flavour, colour, body, head retention and alcohol content. Although other grains can be malted, barley is the preferred source of fermentable extract. 

Barley in its natural state cannot be "mashed". The malting process breaks down the starches contained in the barley husk into their component parts and renders them convertible to fermentable sugars by the naturally occurring enzymes collectively known as diastase.

 The first step in malting is to steep the barley in tanks of cool water until the grains have absorbed the maximum amount of moisture. The next step is to spread the barley over the "malting floor" where germination takes place. The grains must be regularly turned to enable the excess moisture to evaporate. The growing shoot, the acrospire, must not be allowed to protrude from the end of the barley kernel. The maltster's skill is his ability to determine when the acrospire has almost travelled the length of the husk. At this point the malt is considered fully "modified".

 The malted barley is now transferred to a kiln where it is first dried and then roasted. The differing moisture contents, kiln temperatures and kiln times provide the maltster with the means to produce many different types of malt which in turn enable the brewer to make his own individual beers as simple or as complex as he wishes.

 There follows a brief description of the grains stocked by Brupaks. We hope that this will tempt you to experiment with them and widen your brewing horizons.

There is a scale for determining the colour of malt and beer, which is used throughout Europe. The colour is measured in EBC units, where the lowest rating is the palest colour. From the very palest Pilsner Malt at 2.5 EBC to Roasted Barley and Black Malt at anything up to 1500 EBC, there are a vast number of ways to reach the desired beer colour. Only the palest malts, however, contain the enzymes necessary for starch conversion. The bulk of any beer recipe must consist of these malts. The diastatic power of each malt is shown as the maximum percentage that is recommended in the grist.

 

MALTED BARLEY

PILSNER MALT ( Germany, Belgium, Czech)

Usually produced from German, Belgian and Czech barley, Pilsner malt can be used on its own, provided the pH of the mash is correct, or in combination with other grains to produce the classic Continental lager beers. The malt is kilned slowly from 50°C to 60°C to completely dry it before it is toasted at 80°C.  The inclusion of a small amount (3% - 5%) of acid malt is highly recommended when brewing Pilsners.

Colour 2.5 EBC; Maximum Percentage 100%

 

MARIS OTTER EXTRA PALE ( UK)

Kilning is stopped early to produce this very light coloured pale malt, suitable for light-bodied summer ales.

Colour 2.5 EBC; Maximum Percentage 100%

 

LAGER MALT ( UK)

Lager malt is the British version of Pilsner malt. It is kilned at slightly higher temperatures, from 55°C to 82°C, and can be substituted for Pilsner malt if that is unavailable. Again, the inclusion of acid malt is desirable.

Colour 3 EBC; Maximum Percentage 100%

 

ACID MALT ( Germany)

Acid malt is a very useful adjunct for producing high class Lagers. It contains lactic acid, which lowers the mash pH, giving a softer palate than if gypsum is used. The inclusion of a small percentage of this malt is recommended for all pale lagers.

Colour 3 EBC; Maximum Percentage 10%

 

CARAPILS MALT ( Germany)

Produced from Bavarian spring barley, this malt is produced by loading the modified grains into a sealed kiln while the moisture content is still around 50%. The grains are then heated to between 65°C and 80°C, which enables them to mash themselves and caramelise the resulting sugars. The final kilning is at around 110°C for just long enough to dry the grain without undue darkening. When used in lager beers, Carapils promotes head formation and retention and gives the beer a fuller rounder flavour. As the starches have already been converted during malting, this malt is ideal for use by extract brewers.

Colour 3 - 5 EBC; Maximum Percentage 10%

 

PALE MALT ( UK)

Pale malt is the basis of all British ales. Several varieties of barley are used with Maris Otter being the most highly prized, although Halcyon, Optic and the newcomer, Pearl, are also excellent malting barleys. Also available exclusively from Brupaks is the legendary Golden Promise, which has its own unique character. Experimentation is strongly advised, as the subtle differences between pale malts are difficult to put into words. British pale malt is kilned very dry at temperatures between 95°C and 105°C.

Colour 4 - 5 EBC; Maximum Percentage 100%

 

RAUCHMALZ - SMOKED ( Germany)

Probably the rarest malt of all, Rauchmalz is only produced in Bamberg, Germany and is used to brew that town's world famous Rauchbier. The kilning of this malt takes place over open fires made of beech wood logs. The phenols released from the wood permeate the malt and give it its smoky taste and aroma. Besides making Rauchbier, this unique malt can add interesting flavour notes to a wide variety of beer styles. It is particularly effective in Brown Ales and Porters which were traditionally brewed with traditional brown malt, also kilned over open fires but no longer available.

Colour 3 - 6 EBC; Maximum percentage 100%

 

MILD ALE MALT ( UK)

Mild malt is kilned slightly hotter than pale malt to give a fuller flavour. We strongly recommend the use of this malt to obtain the luscious sweetness evident in the best Mild Ales.

Colour 6 EBC; Maximum percentage 100%

 

PALE MALT ( Belgium)

Belgian pale malt gives a more significant malt flavour and a darker colour than the British equivalent due to its different production method. Kilning takes place at a lower temperature (85°C to 90°C) but is continued for longer in order to obtain the correct colour. Brewers of Belgian ales should always use this malt for authenticity.

Colour 7 EBC; Maximum percentage 100%

 

VIENNA MALT ( Germany)

Vienna malt forms the basis for the famous Märzen and Oktoberfest beers, whose characteristics are a golden colour and full malt flavour. Caramelisation is not required for this malt so it is dried fairly cool before being roasted at around lO5°C.

Colour 6 - 8 EBC; Maximum percentage 100%

 

MUNICH MALT (Germany/Belgium)

As the name suggests, this malt is used to brew the famous rich, sweet beers associated with Munich. It can, however, be used in small quantities to enhance the maltiness in other beer styles. Many Belgian ales contain this malt and even some of the more adventurous British breweries are experimenting with it. Munich Malt is kilned while the moisture content is still quite high (about 20%). The gradual raising of the temperature to around 1OO°C allows for some caramelisation.

Colour 15 - 25 EBC; Maximum percentage 100% (although rarely used at over 80%)

 

CARAHELL ( Germany)

This malt is mainly used to accentuate the fullness of flavour in special German festival beers, although it is unsurpassed as a flavour booster in low alcohol lagers. Produced in the same way as Carapils but kilned off slightly hotter. Greatly increases head formation and retention.

Colour 20 - 30 EBC; Maximum percentage 40% (Higher in low alcohol beers)

 

BRITISH CARAMALT

The palest of all crystal malts, this grain is used when a crystal character is required without unduly darkening the beer. Particularly suitable for pale ales and bitters.

Colour 30 - 40 EBC; Maximum percentage 20%

 

CARA RED ( Germany)

A new malt from Weyermann in Bamberg. Use to add body and increase malt aroma in many beer styles. Provides greater depth of colour and a reddish hue.

Colour 40 - 60 EBC; Maximum percentage 10%

 

DIASTATIC AMBER MALT ( Belgium)

This unique grain is the palest of all roasted malts.It is roasted at a lower temperature to preserve the diastatic enzymes. Although produced in Belgium, it is Indispensable when recreating historic English beers.

Colour 50 - 60 EBC; Maximum percentage 80%

 

CARA AMBER ( Germany )

A new malt from Weyermann in Bamberg. Improves flavour stability and promotes fuller body. Provides deep red colour. An interesting addition for all amber and dark beers.

Colour 60 - 80 EBC; Maximum percentage 20%

 

PALE CRYSTAL MALT ( UK)

This light version of the British classic is ideal for increasing body and fullness while preserving a pale colour. Unsurpassed in Bitter beers and Pale Ales for adding subtle sweetness to balance the customary high hop rate. Crystal malt is produced in much the same manner as Carapils except that kilning is prolonged until the desired colour is reached.

Colour 80 - 140 EBC; Maximum percentage 20%

 

MELANOIDIN MALT ( Germany )

Malt flavour is defined by melanoidins, compounds formed by non enzymatic browning of malt sugars and low molecular weight proteins during the kilning process. Munich malt and Belgian aromatic malt are quite high in melanoidins, but for a high malt profile this very special malt is unsurpassed. This aromatic malt from Bamberg, Germany produces flavours similar to those from decoction mashes. Melanoidin malt promotes fullness of flavour and rounds off beer colour. It can be used to good effect in all medium to dark beers, especially Munich style lagers. Experimentation is strongly advised.

Colour 60 - 80 EBC; Maximum percentage 15%

 

CARAMÜNCH ( Germany)

A very special and rare malt only produced in Bamberg in northern Bavaria. It is made in a similar way to Munich Malt except that caramelisation is allowed to progress further and kilning is conducted at higher temperatures. Although only used in small quantities, it has a marked effect on the fullness of flavour and aroma in golden to brown lager beers and ales.

Colour 80 - 100 EBC; Maximum percentage 10%

 

AMBER MALT ( UK)

Amber is a very rare British Malt. The grain is dried to about 3% moisture and then heated quickly to above 95°C. The temperature is then raised slowly to around l40°C where it is held until the correct colour is achieved. An interesting alternative to crystal malt in bitters and outstanding in dark ales, especially Porters.

Colour 5O - 90 EBC; Maximum percentage 20%

 

CRYSTAL MALT ( UK)

The classic British body builder and a British invention. Unsurpassed in Bitter beers for adding subtle sweetness to balance the customary high hop rate. Crystal malt is produced in much the same manner as Carapils except that kilning is prolonged until the desired colour is reached. Crystal malts cover a wide range of colours but in the UK the usual level is around 120 EBC.

Colour 80 - 140 EBC; Maximum percentage 20%

 

BROWN MALT ( UK)

Although not produced in the traditional manner (wood smoked), this malt can be used in old recipes calling for brown malt, especially if used with a proportion of rauchmalz. Brown malt can also add complexity to styles such as porter and old ale.

Colour 140 - 160 EBC;  Maximum percentage 20%

 

AROMATIC MALT ( Belgium)

Aromatic malt provides a very strong malt flavour and aroma. Although not a roasted malt, it is kilned at close to the maximum possible temperature of 115°C until the desired colour is obtained. Perfect for any beer in which a high malt profile is required and can be used in fairly high quantities as some diastatic power is retained.

Colour 150 - 160 EBC; Maximum percentage 20%

 

DARK CRYSTAL MALT ( UK)

A very dark crystal malt which has undergone a substantially extended kilning. Use in beers that require a deep copper colour without too much crystal character, or in porter and old ale.

Colour 230 - 250 EBC; Maximum percentage 20%

 

SPECIAL B ( Belgium)

Special B is produced in the same way as other Belgian caramel malts except that it undergoes a second roasting. Its profile is that of a cross between dark caramel malt and medium roasted malt. The resultant distinctive flavour and aroma enhances many Belgian classics, but could also add interesting flavours to British ales, especially milds, brown ales etc. An interesting usage is to blend Rauchmalz with Special B (60/40) to emulate the flavour of the traditional English brown malt, traditionally kilned over open fires.

Colour 250 - 300 EBC; Maximum percentage 10%

 

LIGHT CHOCOLATE MALT ( UK)

A highly roasted malt which when used in small quantities imparts a rich chocolate flavour to such beers as Brown Ales and Porters. Can also be used to darken Bitters if used carefully.

Colour 600 EBC; Maximum percentage 5%

 

CHOCOLATE MALT ( UK)

A highly roasted malt which when used in small quantities imparts a rich chocolate flavour to such beers as Brown Ales and Porters. Can also be used to darken Bitters if used carefully

Colour 800 EBC; Maximum percentage 5%

 

ROASTED CARAMALT DE-HUSKED - CARAFA SPECIAL I ( Germany)

Produced in Bamberg, Germany by Weyermann, this exclusive malt is produced from de-husked barley which greatly reduces the harshness usually associated with highly roasted grains, while retaining the required colour, aroma and body. Use for dark lagers and as an alternative to chocolate malt in all beers.

Colour 800 EBC; Maximum percentage 5%

 

ROASTED CARAMALT DE-HUSKED - CARAFA SPECIAL 3 ( Germany)

Produced in Bamberg, Germany by Weyermann, this exclusive malt is produced from de-husked barley which greatly reduces the harshness usually associated with highly roasted grains, while retaining the required colour, aroma and body. Use for dark lagers and as an alternative to black malt or roasted barley in all beers.

Colour 1200 EBC; Maximum percentage 5%

 

BLACK MALT ( UK)

This is produced by roasting British pale malt as far as possible without burning. It is the preferred darkener in sweeter Stouts and Porters and can be used for minor colour adjustments in other beers.

Colour 1400 EBC; Maximum percentage 10%

 

OTHER MALTED GRAINS

 

MALTED OATS ( UK)

Oats are extremely difficult to malt and to crush efficiently but their contribution to the flavour of certain speciality ales is significant. Oats are rich in oils and tend to promote a velvety texture in beer. Although many old recipes called for large quantities of malted oats, it is recommended they should be used with caution.

Colour 2 EBC; Maximum percentage 5%

 

PALE WHEAT MALT ( UK)

Wheat is a difficult grain to malt as it has no husk to protect the delicate acrospire. It has, however, many beneficial properties for the brewer to take advantage of. It is generally used only in top fermented beers, especially the Bavarian Weissbiers, but can be used to enhance roundness of flavour and head formation in most beer styles.

Colour 3 - 4 EBC; Maximum percentage 70 %

 

DARK WHEAT MALT ( Germany)

Not particularly dark in colour but richer in flavour than the standard Wheat malt. It is only produced in Germany and is used for Weissbiers, Kölsch, Alt and some other top fermented beers. Could be incorporated into many British style recipes, particularly those low in alcohol.

Colour 15 - 17 EBC; Maximum percentage 70%

 

CRYSTAL WHEAT MALT ( UK)

A very rare malt from Bavaria, this is in effect crystal malt made from wheat. It can be used in all German style top fermenting beers to increase the fullness of body and intensify the wheat malt aroma.

Colour 100 - 120 EBC; Maximum percentage 15%

 

CHOCOLATE WHEAT MALT ( UK)

Roasted to a very high colour, this is only used for top fermented ales such as Alt and dark Wheat Beers. Even in very small quantities it intensifies the beer's aroma as well as its colour:

Colour 800 EBC; Maximum percentage 2%

 

PALE RYE MALT ( UK)

Use alongside crystal and roasted rye malts to brew the classic German top-fermented rye beer " Roggenbier" or in smaller quantities to add interesting flavours to other ales.

Colour 4 - 6 EBC; Maximum percentage 50%

 

CRYSTAL RYE MALT ( UK)

A very recent addition to the range of malts available to the home brewer. Strongly flavoured and distinctive. Use sparingly in dark beers or be a bit more generous in German Roggenbier.

Colour 100 - 120 EBC; Maximum percentage 10% (more for a strong rye flavour).

 

ROASTED RYE MALT ( UK)

Although rye is a very difficult grain to malt, its unique flavour makes it a must for your grain store. It can be used in conjunction with pale rye and wheat malt to make Bavarian Roggenbier or used to increase the complexity of flavour in many other top fermenting styles. Experimentation is strongly advised.

Colour 8OO EBC; Maximum percentage 3%

 

UNMALTED GRAINS (ADJUNCTS)

 

Most unmalted grains are best used in flaked form. The flakes are produced by first cooking the raw grains in water until the starches have been gelatinised. They are then dried and passed through rollers to flatten them. The enzymes contained in the malt can then easily convert the starch.

 

FLAKED RICE

The perfect substitute for any recipe calling for the addition of sugar. It is virtually flavourless but provides some body without darkening the colour. A highly recommended adjunct as its low nitrogen content assists in clearing.

Maximum percentage 10%

 

FLAKED BARLEY

Flaked barley is a versatile adjunct, particularly useful in Stouts. It imparts a lovely grainy flavour and can be used in quite large quantities in black beers. Flaked barley can, however cause haze problems in paler styles, where the percentage should not exceed 5%.

Maximum Percentage 20%

 

TORREFIED WHEAT

Available whole and flaked, this grain is used extensively to promote head retention in Bitters. Its use is definitely recommended in all recipes where a good firm head is required. Ideal for brewing Belgian Witbier .

Maximum percentage 10% (or up to 40% for Witbier)

 

ROASTED BARLEY

This is simply raw barley, which has been roasted as far as possible to make the darkest of all grains. Its slightly bitter burnt taste finds favour in Irish type Stouts but it can be used sparingly to darken other beers.

Maximum percentage 10%

 

FLAKED MAIZE

Derived from corn kernels, this cereal gives a delicate corn taste to beer if used sparingly. Its use is beneficial for clearing purposes due to its low nitrogen content.

Maximum Percentage 10%

 

FLAKED OATS

An easy to use alternative to malted oats. Use for oatmeal stout and sparingly in Belgian witbier.

Maximum Percentage 10%

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The Brupaks Guide to Hops Thu, 01 Jan 2009 00:00:00 +0000 sales@goodlifehomebrew.com (Sales Team) Beer http://www.goodlifehomebrew.com/article_info.php?articles_id=9 http://www.goodlifehomebrew.com/article_info.php?articles_id=9 THE BRUPAKS GUIDE TO HOPS

 

For hundreds of years hops have been used as the 'seasoning' in beer. Originally a wild-growing weed, the hop, a member of the cannabis family, is now intensively cultivated. Its inherent poor resistance to disease and its low tolerance of adverse weather conditions have led to the development of many new varieties bred to combat disease whilst retaining flavour and bittering power.

Hops are used for three separate purposes, besides their natural preserving properties. Firstly they impart bitterness. Secondly they combine with the malt to give the beer its flavour. Their third contribution is the wonderful bouquet associated with the finest Real Ales and Pilsners.

To obtain the maximum bitterness from hops, they must be boiled in the wort for a minimum of one hour. The alpha acids, which provide the bitterness are insoluble until they have been isomerised by the long boil. Unfortunately all of the aroma and much of the flavour is driven off with the steam. It is common practice, therefore, to add hops to the boil in stages.

At the beginning of the boil the bittering or 'copper' hops are added. Although much of the flavour disappears during boiling, each hop variety has its own characteristic bitterness. In general high alpha hops give a somewhat harsh bitterness, which could be unpleasant in a heavily hopped beer. These should be used in mildly hopped beers or in Stouts where the main flavour is derived from roasted grains. When brewing beers with a high hop profile, such as Bitters, Pilsners, Altbiers etc., only the finest aroma hops should be employed. Late in the boiling process, about 5 to 10 minutes from the end the flavour hops are added. These should always be aroma varieties. There are several methods used to create bouquet. Certainly only the freshest aroma hops should be used and these can be stirred into the wort when boiling is over and left to steep for a while. Alternatively the beer can be dry hopped after fermentation. This is conducted either in a conditioning tank (secondary fermenter) or in a keg or cask.

Hops are generally divided into three categories:

1.      AROMA HOPS. These varieties are usually low in alpha acids but high in essential oils. Brewers wishing to create high class, heavily hopped beers should use aroma hops for all three purposes. The bitterness imparted by aroma hops such as Goldings or Tettnang is totally different from that derived from high alpha varieties such as Northern Brewer or Target.

2.      DUAL PURPOSE HOPS. Some varieties, although high in alpha acids, have quite acceptable aroma properties. These can be used for boiling and late additions but are usually unsuitable for dry hopping.

3.      COPPER HOPS. Use only where low bitterness levels are required. Can be used in dark beers employing large amounts of roasted grain.

Many recipes in home brewing books have been formulated without regard for the alpha acid content of the suggested hops and rarely advise late hopping. This type of recipe will often produce a completely unbalanced beer with precious little hop flavour and aroma and should be used for guidance only. A far better way is to brew to alpha acid values as is practised commercially. The internationally recognised standard for measuring bitterness in beer is the European Bittering Unit (EBU). Most beers fall between EBU 25and EBU 65. The following is a guide to typical EBU levels for the more popular beer styles:

 

Mild, Brown Ale, Sweet Stout, Wheat Beer, British and Munich type Lagers - EBU 15-25

Pilsner - EBU 28-40

Bitter, Pale Ale, Porter - EBU 30-50

Irish Stout, Imperial Stout, Barley Wine - EBU 4O-75

 

There is a simple formula for determining the weight of hops in grams required to brew to a specified EBU value. This formula assumes a 20% hop utilisation. Some brewers may better this utilisation so adjustments may be necessary.

 

EBU REQUIRED x BREW LENGTH IN LITRES

ALPHA ACID OF CHOSEN HOPS x 2

 

 EXAMPLE: You decide to brew 25 litres of Bitter at EBU 45 using East Kent Goldings with an alpha acid content of 7.6%. The calculation is as follows.

 

(45 x 25) / (7.6 x 2) = 74grams

 

IMPORTANT. Only the 'copper hops' should be included in the above calculation as little or no bitterness will be extracted from late hops.

 

The following contains details of all hop varieties currently available from Brupaks. They have been divided into the three categories described above to show their most common usage. 

 

SECTION 1. - AROMA HOPS

 

Worcester Goldings (UK) - Alpha Acid 5.0 - 7.0%

Originally grown in Kent and Surrey , the majority of Goldings are now produced in Worcestershire. The beautiful, flowery Goldings aroma is highly prized by brewers, but supplies are becoming harder to obtain due to poor yields and low resistance to disease.

East Kent Goldings (UK) - Alpha Acid 5.0 - 7.0%

This year we are again fortunate to be able to offer East Kent Goldings to the trade. Use these for your best Pale Ales and Bitters.

Fuggles (UK) - Alpha Acid 3.5 - 5.5%

Fuggles are used extensively in Bitters and Pale Ales but are unsurpassed for flavouring the darker British styles.

W.G.V. - Whitbread Golding Variety (UK) - Alpha Acid 5.0 - 8.0%

Originally bred by Whitbread's Brewery, this variety displays both Goldings and Fuggles characteristics. Although very fine ales can be made using WGV exclusively, they are usually used in combination with other varieties.

Bramling Cross (UK) - Alpha Acid 5.0 - 7.0%

Originally bred from the Bramling Golding and a wild American hop, Bramling Cross is a low yielding variety grown in Kent and Sussex. Although an easy hop to grow, it is very low yielding so not an attractive proposition to the farmer. It has a very distinctive aroma, which is best suited to stronger, darker styles of beer. Although its popularity has been declining over the past 20 years or so, it is now making a comeback amongst the new breed of microbrewers.

Progress (UK) - Alpha Acid 5.0 - 7.5%

Originally grown as a Fuggles replacement, Progress is a very versatile hop that combines fine aroma properties with a respectable alpha acid content. It seems to be at its best when combined with Goldings in high class Bitters and Pale Ales.

First Gold (UK) - Alpha Acid 8.0 - 9.0%

One of the new exciting varieties of 'dwarf hops', First Gold is a very fine aroma hop reminiscent of the Golding. It is a seedling of WGV and has been bred to grow to a height of just 2 to 3 metres to aid harvesting. Its delicately spicy aroma renders it particularly suitable for late and dry hopping. The fairly high alpha acid content makes for economy in the boil. First Gold is certain to gain popularity with brewers and farmers alike.

Hallertauer Hersbrucker (Germany) - Alpha Acid 2.0 - 5.0%

Grown in the Hersbruck district of the Hallertau, the largest hop-growing region in the world, this is the classic Lager hop.Its fine aroma properties are world renowned, ideally suited to all Lagers and can even be used to good effect in Bitters.

Hallertauer Mittelfrüh (Germany) - Alpha Acid 3.0 - 5.5%

Hallertauer Mittelfrüh (Middle Early) is arguably the world's finest aroma hop. Brupaks is proud to be able to offer this variety to the home brew trade. Much of the production is shipped to the USA where it is used in the production of the multi-award winning Samuel Adams beers. The remainder is used primarily in premium quality Pilsners.

Tettnang (Germany) - Alpha Acid 2.0 - 5.0%

Although grown in southern Germany, the distinctive Tettnang aroma is more often found in the well-hopped Pilsners of the north. Jever and Bitburger are two famous brands that employ Tettnang. Large amounts of this hop can be used for bittering without imparting harshness so it is highly recommended for very bitter beers, including Bitters and Pale Ales.

Perle (Germany) - Alpha Acid 5.5 - 8.5%

Although generally regarded as an aroma hop, the moderately high alpha acid content of this variety will find more brewers employing Perle in the copper. Its high resistance to disease has made it a favourite with German farmers. Perle is now grown all over southern Germany and is suitable for all types of lager beers.

Styrian Goldings (Slovenia) - Alpha Acid 3.0 - 6.0%

After their indigenous varieties were exterminated by powdery mildew in 1930, the Yugoslavians imported Fuggles from England , probably under the name 'Fuggles Goldings' as at that time Fuggles were considered to be inferior to Goldings. Since then they have been known as Styrian Goldings. Although essentially Fuggles, they have a beautiful perfumey aroma which lends itself to both Continental Lagers and the less malty English ales. Many English brewers use these for late and dry hopping Bitters.

Saaz (Czech Republic) - Alpha Acid 2.0 - 5.0%

The classic Pilsner hop from the Czech Republic is used in many of the world's finest beers, including the exceptional Pilsner Urquell. It's beautiful aroma and delicate bitterness make it suitable for many styles. The Altbier brewers of Düsseldorf use vast quantities of Saaz to achieve the very high bitterness levels required for this style.  

Mount Hood (USA) - Alpha Acid 4.0 - 7.0%

Originally developed from the German Hallertauer Mittelfrüh variety, Mount Hood has evolved into a very versatile hop. It can be readily used in both lagers and ales where a mild aroma is required. Grown now in Washington, Oregon and Idaho.

Willamette (USA) - Alpha Acid 4.0 - 6.0%

Although originally bred from the Fuggle, Willamette is now regarded as an aroma variety in its own right.Its blackcurrant/herbal aroma is quite distinctive and can be used to great affect in all ale styles.

Cascade (USA) - Alpha Acid 5.0 - 7.0%

Due to the somewhat abnormal levels of some of the essential oils, Cascade has an aroma which is all its own. It is very popular among the new breed of American microbrewers and the Cascade 'nose' is immediately evident in their beers.This variety is now being introduced into some English micro brewed beers with good effect.

Liberty (USA) - Alpha Acid 3.5 - 5.5%

Tests made in a number of British breweries have produced very favourable results and Liberty will gain much wider recognition in the future. It is bred from Hallertauer Mittelfrüh and retains some of that variety's characteristics. It can, however, be used to great effect in English style ales where it displays some Fuggles notes.

Crystal ( USA ) - Alpha Acid 4.0 - 6.0%

Bred from Hallertauer Hersbrucker and Cascade, this is a hop of the very highest quality.Use for all beers where a distinct, floral aroma is required.

Centennial (USA) - Alpha Acid 6.0 - 11.0

Often described as Super Cascades this variety will give Pale Ales and IPA’s that characteristic powerful hop flavour and aroma found in the very best American ales.

Hallertauer Aroma (NZ) - Alpha Acid 7.0 - 9.5%

Bred as per Pacific Hallertauer, this variety has a similar, but richer, aroma which keeps its freshness even in older beers. Perfect for strong lagers and robust bitters.

 

SECTION 2. - DUAL PURPOSE HOPS

 

Challenger (UK) - Alpha Acid 5.0 - 9.0%

Originally developed as a Goldings replacement, Challenger is a very versatile variety. Many brewers have found that excellent beers can be brewed from Challenger alone. It has fine bittering properties and a respectable aroma. More commonly, though, it is combined with a dedicated aroma variety. Challenger is gradually commanding less and less acreage these days as it gives way to more disease resistant varieties, such as the dwarf Pioneer.

Aurora (Slovenia) - Alpha Acid  8.0 - 10.0%

This dual-purpose variety has an intense but pleasant aroma is great for bittering and aroma. It can be used in all ales (and judiciously in some lagers).

Northdown (UK) - Alpha Acid 7.0 - 10.0%

Northdown is a seedling of Northern Brewer, which is no longer grown in Britain. It retains much of its parent's fine bittering properties but has a much-improved aroma.. Although Northdown can be used on its own to good effect, especially in darker styles of beer, it is the ideal accompaniment to aroma hops such as Fuggles or Progress. It is particularly suited to Irish Stout

Pioneer (UK) - Alpha Acid 8.5 - 9.5%

Pioneer is one of the new breed of 'dwarf hops' developed at Wye College in Kent. These plants grow to a height of around eight feet which makes harvesting them much easier than the usual eighteen feet varieties. Brewing trials by commercial breweries have been encouraging, with a fine aroma and a delicate bitterness in evidence. These are likely to become a firm favourite with home brewers in the future.

Brewers Gold (Germany) - Alpha Acid 5.0 - 9.0%

Very popular in Germany as a copper hop. Its bitterness is highly suited to Lager beers as it shows no sign of harshness. Brewers Gold is at its best when used in conjunction with 'noble varieties' such as Tettnang and Hallertauer Mittelfrüh.

Amarillo (USA)  Alpha Acid  8.0 - 10.0%

Exceptional quality hop with an orange-citrus flavour. Use sparingly for flavouring as the orange flavour can dominate. Superb for late/dry hopping.

Green Bullet (New Zealand) - Alpha Acid 11.0 - 13.0%

Exceptional quality hop which has a pleasant aroma as well as a very high alpha acid content. Used in New Zealand for many lager types, Green Bullet can be economically substituted for Styrian Goldings.

Pacific Gem (NZ) - Alpha Acid 14.0 - 18.0%

Although it has one of the highest alpha acid contents in the world, Pacific Gem has a delicious berry-fruit aroma much prized by many commercial brewers. More suited to ales than lagers.

 

SECTION 3. - BITTERING HOPS

 

Target (UK) - Alpha Acid 10.5 - 11.5%

Target is by far the most widely grown variety in Britain due to its heavy cropping, excellent resistance to disease and high alpha acid content. It now takes up almost a third of the total acreage although this is sure to decrease as the new dwarf varieties become more popular. Although recognised by some brewers as an aroma hop, Target is at its best in the copper for the production of beers with a low bitterness. Commercially, Target is used extensively in keg beers for economical reasons. Its powerful flavour would be overwhelming in more assertive brews. Used with discretion in combination with fine aroma hops, however, excellent Bitters and Pale Ales can be produced.

Northern Brewer (Germany) - Alpha Acid 10.0 - 11.0%

Although originally developed in Britain, Northern Brewer is now grown almost exclusively in Germany . It is very versatile in that it can be used to provide bitterness in both Ales and Lagers. Its low aroma requires it to be used with other, more flavourful hops for the best results.

Galena (USA) - Alpha Acid 13.0 - 14%

Galena is now by far the widest grown hop in America . It is a heavy cropper and has good resistance to disease. Brewing tests have revealed a Bullion-like flavour and Galena can be used as a replacement for this variety, which is now almost extinct.

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The Brupaks Guide to Water Treatment Thu, 01 Jan 2009 00:00:00 +0000 sales@goodlifehomebrew.com (Sales Team) Beer http://www.goodlifehomebrew.com/article_info.php?articles_id=7 http://www.goodlifehomebrew.com/article_info.php?articles_id=7 WATER TREATMENT

As water is by far the main ingredient of beer, it is important that it is suitable for the purpose. Historically, beers were brewed to suit the water available, e.g. Stouts and Porters were produced primarily in London and Dublin where the water is high in carbonates, Pale Ales and Bitters, however, were far more suited to the gypseous water of Burton-On-Trent.

With the advance of science it is now possible to brew most beer styles with any type of water providing it is correctly treated. To illustrate this we have broken down the procedure into three operations.

1. Filtration

Although most domestic water supplies are perfectly suited to brewing, they usually contain elements that are best removed. Foremost among these is chlorine, added to water for disinfectant purposes, but other substances such as sand, rust, polyphenols etc. also have a deleterious effect on the brewing process. Brewing beer with unfiltered water is leaving too much to chance! Most specialist home brew retailers will be able to offer a suitable water filter to remove these unwanted substances. Simple chlorine and chloramine removal can, however, be effected by the addition of potassium metabisulphite (campden).

2. Adjustment of Carbonate Levels

In order to produce quality pale beers, the brewing liquor must be low in carbonates as they prevent the correct mash pH from being achieved. Quality Pale Ales, Bitters and Lagers cannot be made with such water, so appropriate measures must be taken to correct its composition. Brupaks CRS (Carbonate Reducing Solution) is an acid blend which, when added to brewing liquor, reduces the level of carbonate without the need to boil. Darker beers can tolerate higher levels of carbonates.

3. Adjustment of Calcium Levels

Calcium is a very important mineral in the brewing process for its effect on mash and wort pH. Calcium chloride and calcium sulphate (gypsum) are used to lower the pH (increase the acidity), whereas, when brewing dark beers with soft water, calcium carbonate is sometimes added to balance the inherent acidity of the roasted grains. Brupaks Dry Liquor Salts (DLS) is a carefully controlled blend of inorganic salts designed to increase calcium levels and lower pH. When brewing Pale Ales and Bitters it is usual to use both CRS and DLS to treat the liquor, as most water supplies have an excess of carbonate and insufficient calcium. For Lager it is recommended that CRS be used in the mashing liquor to reduce carbonate, followed by careful additions of lactic acid to the mash tun for lowering the pH. An alternative to lactic acid is to incorporate some German acid malt in the grist. This special malt is used extensively in Germany in the production of high class lagers.

USING BRUPAKS WATER TREATMENTS

Before you can start to treat your water you should first contact your water supply company and request the total alkalinity of your water in p.p.m. Unfortunately this is not as clear cut as it should be. Water authorities usually express alkalinity as HCO3 (hydrogen carbonate) whereas the brewing industry uses the traditional CaC03 (calcium carbonate). To use the tables below you will need to know the alkalinity expressed as CaC03. As you will probably have only the HC03 value, you can convert it to CaC03 simply by dividing this figure by 1.22. From this figure it is possible to determine the required amounts of CRS and DLS to be added for all styles of beer. An average Bitter or Pale Ale requires the water to have a total alkalinity of 30-50 p.p.m. and a calcium content of 180-220 p.p.m. If the total alkalinity of your water is below 50 p.p.m. you will not need to use CRS but will most probably need to increase the calcium with DLS.

Example: You are brewing a Bitter and the total alkalinity of your water as CaC03 is 195 p.p.m. In order to bring it within the target range of 30-50 p.p.m. you will need to reduce the alkalinity by 145-165 p.p.m. From the following table you can calculate the amount of CRS to be added. N.B. All brewing liquor should be treated with CRS, not just that used for mashing.

CRS in millilitres per litre  

CRS

0.35

0.52

0.70

0.87

1.05

1.22

1.40

1.57

1.75

Alkalinity

-64

-96

-128

-160

-192

-224

-256

-288

-320

The table shows that to reduce the alkalinity by 160 p.p.m. CRS should be added at a rate of 0.87ml per litre. Thus for a standard 25 litre brew, which will probably require 30 litres of liquor, 30 x 0.87 = 26mls of CRS should be added. After adding CRS, several minutes standing time should be allowed to release the carbon dioxide produced by the neutralisation of the excess acid.

Now that the carbonate level has been adjusted, you now have to correct the calcium content. Fortunately a close approximation of the amount of calcium present can be obtained by a simple piece of arithmetic:

Original alkalinity in ppm x 0.4 = Calcium in ppm

In the above example you have an original alkalinity of 195 p.p.m. Using the above formula the calcium content can be calculated as follows: 195 x 0.4 = 78 p.p.m.

A typical Bitter requires a calcium content of 180-220 p.p.m. As you already have 78 p.p.m. you will need an extra 102-142 p.p.m. The quantity of DLS required can be ascertained from the table below.

DLS in grams per litre

DLS

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

1.1

Calcium

16

31

47

63

94

109

125

141

156

172

188

The table shows that in order to increase the calcium content by 125 p.p.m you will need to add 0.7 grams of DLS per litre.

When making a full mash brew, DLS should be added in two stages:

Stage 1. Weigh sufficient DLS to treat your mashing liquor (e.g. 10 litres x 0.7 = 7 grams). Mix DLS into the dry grains. This is most important as adding it to raw liquor will not affect the mash pH.

Stage 2. Weigh sufficient DLS to treat the balance of the total brewing liquor (e.g. 20 litres x 0.7 = 14 grams). Add to the wort at the commencement of the boil.

Extract brewers should add the total amount of DLS to the wort at the commencement of the boil.

From the above information you should be able to treat almost any water to brew first class Bitters and Pale Ales. Other styles of beer, however, require different levels of carbonate and calcium. These are the recommended alkalinity and calcium levels for the most common beer styles.

Bitter and Pale Ale. Alkalinity as CaC03 - up to 50 p.p.m. Calcium - 180 to 220 p.p.m.

Mild Ale. Alkalinity as CaC03 - 100 to 150 p.p.m. Calcium - 90 to 110 p.p.m.

Porter and Stout. Alkalinity as CaC03 - 100 to 150 p.p.m. Calcium - 100 to 120 p.p.m.

Pale Lager. Alkalinity as CaC03 - up to 30 p.p.m. Calcium - 100 to 120 p.p.m.

 WATER TREATMENT PRODUCTS

Brupaks supplies the following products for the treatment of brewing water. All of these products are available from good home brew shops throughout the UK.

Calcium Chloride Flakes . For simple calcium additions. Available in 500g packs.

Carbonate Reducing Solution (CRS). An acid blend that neutralises carbonates without the need to boil. Available in 250ml bottles.

Dry Water Treatment Salts . A carefully controlled blend of inorganic salts for precise treatment of brewing liquor. Available in 100g and 250g packs.

Gypsum (calcium sulphate). For simple calcium additions. Available in 250g packs.

Burton Water Crystals . A blend of calcium sulphate and magnesium sulphate intended to 'Burtonise' the liquor. Available in 250g packs.

Lactic Acid (80% solution). Used to acidify the mash and sparge water when brewing Lagers. A pH meter or indicator strips should always be used when adding lactic acid. Available in 100ml and 250ml bottles.

Pocket pH Meter . Accurate and easy to use. Liquid to be measured must first be cooled to around 20°C.

pH Indicator Strips . With built-in colour matching chart.

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Malt Extracts Mon, 05 Jan 2009 00:00:00 +0000 sales@goodlifehomebrew.com (Sales Team) Beer http://www.goodlifehomebrew.com/article_info.php?articles_id=6 http://www.goodlifehomebrew.com/article_info.php?articles_id=6 Malt Extract is a natural flavouring and colouring, rich in protein and natural sugar, and recognised as a major natural energy source. Apart from its use in brewing, it's also widely used in baking, confectionery, breakfast cereals, malt beverages, dairy products, condiments and as a caramel substitute.

 

Dark
Dark Malt Extract is produced by mashing finely ground malted barley with water at a temperature not exceeding 75C. Then the resulting liquid is filtered and reduced through evaporation under partial vacuum until it is the consistency of thick honey. The grist comprises a proportion of roasted malted barley as constituent of the mash in order to produce a malt extract with a dark colour.

Standard ND
Malt Extract is produced by mashing finely ground malted barley with water at a temperature not exceeding 75C, then filtering and evaporating the resulting liquid under partial vacuum until it is the consistency of thick honey. The grist comprises a high proportion of malted barley as constituent of the mash in order to produce a malt extract with a medium amber colour.

Light
Light Malt Extract is produced by mashing finely ground malted and unmalted barley with water at a temperature not exceeding 75C, then filtering and evaporating the resulting liquid under partial vacuum until it is the consistency of thick honey. The grist comprises a proportion of unmalted barley as constituent of the mash in order to produce a malt extract with a light amber colour.

Wheat
Wheat Malt Extract is produced by mashing finely ground malted barley and wheat with water at a temperature not exceeding 75C, then filtering and evaporating the resulting liquid under partial vacuum until it is the consistency of thick honey. The Grist comprises a high proportion of malted wheat as constituent of the mash in order to produce a malt extract with a medium light amber colour.

Amber
Amber Malt Extract is produced by mashing finely ground malted barley and crystal malt with water at a temperature not exceeding 75C, then filtering and evaporating the resulting liquid under partial vacuum until it is the consistency of thick honey. The grist comprises a proportion of crystal malt as constituent of the mash in order to produce a malt extract with an amber colour.

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Avoid beginnersí mistakes when brewing your own ale Tue, 30 Nov 1999 00:00:00 +0000 sales@goodlifehomebrew.com (Sales Team) Beer http://www.goodlifehomebrew.com/article_info.php?articles_id=33 http://www.goodlifehomebrew.com/article_info.php?articles_id=33 Avoid beginners’ mistakes when brewing your own ale

 

Home brewing is something a lot of people get into when they start developing a more discerning taste for great ale. It’s only natural to want to learn about the processes that go into producing a really nice ale and one of the best ways to go about that is to give a go for yourself.

 

When you start out brewing your own beer at home, you have to accept that it takes a certain amount of trial and error to start seeing great results. That said, there are some really common pitfalls that you can avoid by reading up on them first. That’s what this article’s all about.

 

The following mistakes are really common among first-time brewers. If you get used to avoiding them from the very beginning then you’ll start seeing really good results much quicker and you’ll be able to experiment with new ideas with great confidence.

 

Failing to sanitise properly

 

Cleaning is obviously a bit of a hassle but you have to get it into your mind that a poor approach to sanitisation will totally undermine the quality of the beer you produce. Why put the results in jeopardy from the very beginning by being lazy? Home brewing can be really therapeutic, so try and take pleasure in all the practical jobs.

 

Running before you can walk

 

It’s obviously tempting to try and make a complicated recipe to start with because you want to challenge yourself and you want a really good beer at the end of it. The trouble is that choosing a complicated recipe before you’ve got the basics sorted represents running before you can walk – you’re almost guaranteed to stumble.

 

Getting too impatient

 

Patience, patience and more patience! You can’t really be patient enough when it comes to brewing at home. Don’t just listen out for the bubbling of the airlock, make sure gravity readings have become constant – only then can you think about bottling. Otherwise you risk a bad brew or a load of bottle bombs!

 

Ignoring the recipe

 

Creativity and originality are fantastic attributes when you get good at brewing beer, but they’re superfluous when you’re a beginner. Follow the recipe at first. This is the only way to learn.

 

Failing to buy fresh

 

Just like preparing any other form of food or drink, you have to think about using fresh ingredients of the right quality. If you don’t buy fresh then your beer is likely to be disappointing. When you compare a brew made using fresh ingredients and one made using old ingredients, you’ll notice the difference straight away.

 

Not taking notes

 

Since home brewing necessarily involves trial and error, experimentation and originality, it’s important that you take notes so that you don’t make the same mistakes twice. It’s also a good idea to make proper records so that when something goes well, you can repeat it in the next batch.

 

Getting the temperatures wrong

 

Yeast works better at certain temperatures. It’s important to recognise that the conditions in which you store your gear matter with relation to the fermentation process. Find a spot that is not too hot and not too cold so that your yeast is able to put in its very best performance.

 

By Paul Dowrick

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Campden Tablets Tue, 30 Nov 1999 00:00:00 +0000 sales@goodlifehomebrew.com (Sales Team) Chemicals http://www.goodlifehomebrew.com/article_info.php?articles_id=13 http://www.goodlifehomebrew.com/article_info.php?articles_id=13

Campden Tablets

These are basically sodium / potassium metabisulphite in tablet form.  They can be used to sterilise wine and beer just before bottling, as a general sterilant, and as a water conditioner.

 

 

 

Six Campden Tablets dissolved in a pint of water can be used as a sterilant to rinse almost everything, especially bottles prior to filling.

 

 

 

Campden tablets are also used towards the end of the fermentation process to halt the fermention before all the available sugars are converted by the yeast, hence controlling the amount of residual sweetness in the final product. This balancing between sweet, dry and tart flavors is part of the artistry of wine and cider making.

 

 

The Science bit Campden tablets typically weigh 0.44 g each and 10 of these are equivalent to one level teaspoon of sodium metabisulphite.

 

Warning:  Avoid prolonged contact with stainless steel, as campden tablets will attack the surface causing a 'rusting' like effect.  Also, asthmatics should use caution with any metabisulphite based product as exposure to the fumes can aggrevate asthma.

 

Written by Paul Dowrick.  You can find him on Google+

 

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Chemicals - A General Introduction Tue, 30 Nov 1999 00:00:00 +0000 sales@goodlifehomebrew.com (Sales Team) Chemicals http://www.goodlifehomebrew.com/article_info.php?articles_id=15 http://www.goodlifehomebrew.com/article_info.php?articles_id=15

Winemaking Chemicals: A general introduction

 This is one of the most commonly discussed topics in our shop.  In these modern days of Chinese milk scandals we have all turned our eyes to what is in our food.

 

Although the home winemaker is faced with an overwhelming assortment of tablets, powders and liquids, most of these have their origins in the dim and distant past.

 

Take for example Campden Tablets (Sodium Metabisulphite in tablet form).  These add sulphur dioxide to the wine, and most people would say they are essential.  Not so long ago sulphur dioxide was added to wine by burning sulphur candles in empty oak barrels as a means of sterilising the cask.  The dose was completely random and often way over the top.  As a result the wines were over sulphured and needed to be decanted and allowed to breath before consumption.  Campdens tablets do the same job in an accurate dose that is reproducible time after time.  Of course some wines are made without sulphite and taste great.  But these wines are filtered to sterility and never exposed to the air.  In the absence of a nitrogen flushing system the homebrewer needs to use Campdens especially for wines that are to be stored for a long time.  Campden tablets also make wine safer - excess sulphur dioxide can cause asthma attacks!

 

That's an example of a good additive.  However, many commercial wines have a great deal of artifical ingredients, and current labelling laws do not require the ingredients to be listed on the bottlles label.  The worst example that I know of was a Russian Merlot.  This 'Wine' contained the following :-

 

Grapes, Water, Sugar, Food colouring, acid, tannin, alcohol enhancer (this burns the back of your throat to give a perception of higher alcohol levels), sorbate, sulphite, glycerol, isinglass, gelatin, and finally......  Merlot food flavouring because it had so little taste.  Headache in a bottle !!

 

Most people are unaware that most wines are not vegetarian, and a great number contain more artificial ingredients than a fish finger!!

 

 Suddenly homemade wine seems like the healthy option!

 

Written by Paul Dowrick.  You can find him on Google+

 

 

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